and here and there were sedgy pools and lonely displayed; stout and true Covenanters borne forth tarns, where the heron fished and waded, with the i in groups to die at the gallows or in the Greygreat sheet of the South Loch, where now the Meadows lie; and there, too, was Duddingston, but in size twice the extent we find it now. Of all these hills have looked on since the Roman altars of Jove smoked at lnveresk and Cramond, of all the grim old fortress on its rock and St. Giles’s Gothic and imperial crown have seen, we shall endeavour to lay the wondrous story before our readers. The generations of men are like the waves of the sea ; we know not whence they come or whither they go; but generation after generation of citizens shall Banquo’s spectral line of . Dinas-Eiddyn, with their glittering torques, armlets, and floating hair; the hoodedScoto-Saxons of Lothian and the Merse, with ringed bymes and long battle-axes ; the steel-clad knights bf the Bruces and the Jameses ; merchants and burghers in broadcloth ; monks, abbots, and nuns; Templars on their trial at Holyrood for sorcery and . blasphemy; Knights - hospitallers and hermits of St. Anthony; the old fighting merchant mariners of Leith, such as the Woods, the Bartons, and Sir Alexander Mathieson, (( the king of the sea ; ” friars churchyard, where stands the tomb which tells us how 18,000 ofthem perished as “noble martyrs for Jesus Christ ;” cavaliers in all their bravery and pride, and in the days of their suffering and downfall j the brawling gallants of a century later, who wore lace ruffles and rapiers, and “ paraded ’’ their opponents on the stiiallest provocation in the Duke’s Walk behind Holyrood ; the giave senators and jovial lawyers of the last century, who held their “high jinks” in dingy taverns near the Parliament House; and many of the quaint old citizens who pass before us like figure in the valuable repertory of Kay :-all shall kings; the men of pass in review before us, and we shall touch on them one and all, as we think of them, tenderly and kindly, as of those who are long since dead and gone-gone to their solemn account at the foot of the Great WhiteThrone. In picturesque beauty the capital of Scotland is second to none. ‘( What the tour of Europe was necessary to see,I find congregated in this one city,” said Sir David Wilkie. “Here alike are the beauties of Prague and of Salzburg, the romantic sites of Orvieto and Tivoli, and all the magnificence of the Bays of Naples andGenoa. COUNTER SEAL OF THE ABOVE.? (Af7e-r Hemy LahzJ Here, indeed, to the painwitches andwizards perishing in the flames at the Grassmarket or the Gallow- -lee ; the craftsmen in arms, with their Blue Banner The device of the common seal represents a castle triple-towered, the gats thrown open. In uch of the towen is the head of a soldier. F o l i e appears at the lower part and side of the seal, and above the towen may be seen a crescent and a mullet. The lettcrinz is “SIGIL- - LUY COMYUNI BURGI DE EDINBCBHG.“ ter‘s fancy may be 6und realised the Roman Capitol and the Grecian Acropolis.’’ t A full length figure df St. Giles standing within a Gothic porch in pontifical vestments but without a mitre; in his right hand he holds a crozier, and in his left a boak. At each side is a short staff terminating in a fleur-de-lis. Branches of foliagk ornament the lower part and sides of the design. The lettering k ‘‘ EcrDrI SINGNO CREDATIS (COUDE BENNI) GNO:’ (Fmm a Dmnunt dated 1392).
CHAPTER I. PREHISTORIC EDINBURGH. The Site before the Houses-Traces of Early Inhabitants-The Caledonian Tries-Agricola?s Invasion-Subjection of the Scottish Lowlands- The Roman Way-Edinburgh never occupied permanently-Various Roman Remains : Urns. Coins, Busts ; Swords, Spears, and other Weapons-Ancient Coffins-The Camus, or Cath-stone-Origin of the name ? Edinburgh?-Di-Eiddyn-The Battle of Gtraeth. ON the arrival of Agricola?s Roman army in the Lothians, about the year A.D. 80, the Ottadeni a p pear, according to Chalmers, to have occupied the whole extent of coast from the Tyne to the Firth of Forth, including, that is, a part of Northumberland and Roxburghshire, the whole of the Merse, and Haddingtonshire. The Gadeni, whose temtory lay in the interior country, parallel and contiguous to that of the Ottadeni, had all the land from the Tyne to the south of the Forth; they held, namely, the western parts of Northumberland, RoxburghshLe, the whole of Falkirk, Tweeddale, and much of the Lothians. These were two of the twenty-one Caledonian tribes who were connected by such slight ties as scarcely to enjoy a social state, and who then occupied the whole of Northern Britain. That these Ottadeni and Gadeni were well armed, and resisted bravely, the number of camps and battle-stones scattered throughout the country amply attests; and it is not improbable that the site of Dalkeith (DuZdh, or the field of battle) may have seen some struggle with Agricola?s Roman, Bakvian, and Tungrian cohorts. It was not until the year 83 that Agricola resolved to penetrate into the districts beyond the Forth, as he dreaded a more united resistance from the Caledonian tribes, who had hitherto been hostile to each other. Guided by the information of naval officers who had surveyed the coast, his army crossed the Forth at Inchgarvie, and landed at the north ferry, from whence he proceeded to fight his way towards the Grampians ; but it was not until the year 140 that the Scottish Lowlands were entirely subjected to Roman sway, by Lollius Urbicus, whose legions have left so many roughhewn votive altars and graven memorials of the VALENS VICTRIX, with devotional dedications, people