Old and New Edinburgh

Old and New Edinburgh

Volume I

Volume 1 Page 8
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CHAPTER I. PREHISTORIC EDINBURGH. The Site before the Houses-Traces of Early Inhabitants-The Caledonian Tries-Agricola?s Invasion-Subjection of the Scottish Lowlands- The Roman Way-Edinburgh never occupied permanently-Various Roman Remains : Urns. Coins, Busts ; Swords, Spears, and other Weapons-Ancient Coffins-The Camus, or Cath-stone-Origin of the name ? Edinburgh?-Di-Eiddyn-The Battle of Gtraeth. ON the arrival of Agricola?s Roman army in the Lothians, about the year A.D. 80, the Ottadeni a p pear, according to Chalmers, to have occupied the whole extent of coast from the Tyne to the Firth of Forth, including, that is, a part of Northumberland and Roxburghshire, the whole of the Merse, and Haddingtonshire. The Gadeni, whose temtory lay in the interior country, parallel and contiguous to that of the Ottadeni, had all the land from the Tyne to the south of the Forth; they held, namely, the western parts of Northumberland, RoxburghshLe, the whole of Falkirk, Tweeddale, and much of the Lothians. These were two of the twenty-one Caledonian tribes who were connected by such slight ties as scarcely to enjoy a social state, and who then occupied the whole of Northern Britain. That these Ottadeni and Gadeni were well armed, and resisted bravely, the number of camps and battle-stones scattered throughout the country amply attests; and it is not improbable that the site of Dalkeith (DuZdh, or the field of battle) may have seen some struggle with Agricola?s Roman, Bakvian, and Tungrian cohorts. It was not until the year 83 that Agricola resolved to penetrate into the districts beyond the Forth, as he dreaded a more united resistance from the Caledonian tribes, who had hitherto been hostile to each other. Guided by the information of naval officers who had surveyed the coast, his army crossed the Forth at Inchgarvie, and landed at the north ferry, from whence he proceeded to fight his way towards the Grampians ; but it was not until the year 140 that the Scottish Lowlands were entirely subjected to Roman sway, by Lollius Urbicus, whose legions have left so many roughhewn votive altars and graven memorials of the VALENS VICTRIX, with devotional dedications, people
Volume 1 Page 9
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