370 OLD AND NEW EDINBURGH. [Heriot’s Hospital the four blocks at each angle of the quadrangle are furnished with corbelled turrets, having cupola roofs and vanes. Each of these is four storeys in height; the other parts are three. On the south, opposite the entrance, and facing Lauriston, is the chapel, 61 feet by 22, neatly fitted up, and occasioning a projection, surmounted by a small spJe, which balances the tower on the north For a long period it remained in a comparatively unfinished state, when it was fitted up in what Dr. Steven calls a “flimsy species of Italian architecture,” excepting the pulpit and end galleries, which were a kind of Early English, but meagre in their details. But forty years ago or so, Mr. Gillespie Graham, the architect, suggested that the chapel should be entirely renovated in a style worthy of the building, and he offered to prepare the designs gratuitously. This generous offer was accepted, and it was fitted up in its present elegant style. It has a handsome pulpit, a richly adorned ceiling, and many beautiful carvings of oak. In an architectural point of view this famous hospital is full of contradictions, but when viewed from distant points, its turrets, chimneys, and pipnades stand up against the sky in luxuriant confusion, yet with singular symmetry, though no two portions are quite alike. A professional writer says, “ we know of no other instance in the works of a man of acknowledged talent, where the operation of changing styles is so evident. In the chapel windows, though the outlines are fine Gothic, the mouldings are Roman. In the eatrance archways, although the principal members are Roman, the pinnacles, trusses, and minute sculptures partake of the Gothic.’’ This building has another marked peculiarity, in the segment of an octagonal tower in frontthat of the chapel-lighted through its whole extremity by a succession of Gothic windows divided by mullions alone, which produce a singularly rich and pleasing effect. The hospital is surroundedby a stately and magnificent balustraded terrace, from which noble flights of at least twelve steps descend to the ground. In the wall over the gateway is a statue of George Heriot, the founder, in the’costume of the time of James VI. This, the boys on ‘‘ Heriot’s Day,” the first Monday of June, decorate with flowers, in honour of their benefactor, of whom several relics are preserved in the hospital, particularly his bellows and cup. There is also a portrait of him, said to be only the copy of an original. It represents him in the prime of life, with a calm, thoughtful, and penetrating countenance, and about the mouth an expression of latent humour. Heriot’s foundation has continued to flourish and enjoy a well-deserved fame. (‘With an annual revenue,” says a writer in 1845, “ of nearly AI 5,000, it affords maintenance, clothing, and education for, also pecuniary presents to, one hundred and eighty boys, such being all that the house large as it is, is able conveniently to accommodate. Instead of increasing the establishment in correspondence with the extent of the funds, it was suggested a few years ago, by Mr. Duncan Machen, one of the governors, to devote an annual ovcrplus ofabout L3,ooo to the erection and maintenance of free schools throughout the city, for the education of poor children, those of poor burgesses being preferred, and this judicious proposal being forthwith adopted and sanctioned by an Act of Parliament (6 and 7 William IV,), there have since been erected, and are now (1845) in operation, five juvenile and two infant schools, giving an elementary education to 2,131 children.” This number has greatly increased since then. The management of the hospital is vested in the Lord Provost, Bailies, and Council of the city, and the clergy of the Established Church, making in all fifty-four governors, with a House Governor, Treasurer, Clerk, Superintendent of Property, Physician, Surgeon, Apothecary, Dentist, Accountant, a matron, and a staff of masters. In 1880 the revenue of the hospital amounted to &24,000. In it are maintained 180 boys, of whom 60 are noh-resident. The age of admission is between 7 and 10 years, though in exceptional cases, non-residents may be taken at 12. All leave at 14, unless they pass as “ hopeful scholars.” They are taught English, French, Latin, Greek, and all the usual branches of a liberal education, with music and drawing. Those who manifest a desire to pursue the learned professions are sent to the adjacent University, with an allowance for four sessions of A30 per annum; and apprentices may also receive bursary allowances to forward them in their trades ; while ten out-door bursaries, of;t;zo each yearly, are likewise bestowed on deserving students at college. On leaving the hospital the “poore fatherless boyes, freemen’s sonnes,” as Heriot calls them in his will, are provided with clothes and suitable books; and such of them as become apprentices for five years or upwards, receive A50 divided into equal annual payments during their term of service, besides a gratuity of jC;5 at its end. Those who are apprenticed for a shorter term than five years receive a correspondingly less allowance. One master is resident, as is the house governor, but all the rest are non-resident.
371 Heriot’s Ho.pital.1 THE EDINBURGH VOLUNTEERS. By the Act of Parliament referred to, the governors were empowered to erect from this surplus revenue their elementary schools withiin the city, for educating, free of all expense : rst, the children of all burgesses and freemen in poor circumstances ; znd, the children of burgesses and freemen who were unable to provide for their sup port; 3rd, the children of poor citizens of Eclinburgh, resident within its boundaries. They were also empowered by the same Act, “ to allow to any boys, in the course of their education at such schools, being sons of burgesses and freemen, such uniform fixed sum of money, in lieu and place of maintenance, and such uniform fixed sum for fee as apprentices after their education at the said schools is completed, as shall be determined.” There are now sixteen of these free Heriot schools, in different quarters of Edinburgh, all more or less elegant and ornate in the details of their architecture copied from the parent hospitaL . These schools are attended by upwards of 4,400 boys and girls. There are also nine schools in various parts of the city, open for free instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, French, German, and drawing, attended by about 1,400 young men and women. There are five infant schools maintained from the surplus funds of the same noble and gefierous institution. “ On the report of the Bursary Committee being given in,” at the meeting of governors in Noveniber 1879, ‘‘ Bailie Tawse stated that they had at present eighteea of their young men at college. For the month ending 20th October last, therewere 4,907 pupils on the roll in George Heriot’s schools, and r,075 in connectiori with the Hospital evening classes.” In the old volunteering times, about the last years of the eighteenth century and the first years of the present, the green before the hospital was the favourite place for the musters, parades, and other displays of the civic forces. Here theii colours were presented, from here they were trooped home to the Colonel’s house, when Edinburgh possessed, per cent. of the population, a much greater number of enrolled volunteers than she has now. But other exhibitions took place in Heriot’s Bowling Green, such as when the famous aeronaut, Vincent Lunardi, made his ascent therefiom, on the 5th of October, 1785. On that occasion, we are told, above 80,ooo spectators assembled, and all business in the city was suspended for the greatest portion pf the day. At noon a flag wa: hoisted on the castle, and a cannon, brought from Leith Fort, was discharged in Heriot’s Green, to announce that the process of filling the balloon had begun, and by half-past two it was fully inflated. Lunardi-attired, strange to say, in a scarlet uniform faced with blue, sword, epaulettes, powdered wig, and three-cocked hat-entered the cage, with a Union Jack in his hand, and amid a roaf of acclamation from the startled people, who were but little used to strange sights in that dull time, he ascended at ten minutes to three P.M. He passed over the lofty ridge of the old town, at a vast height, waving his flag as the balloon soared skyward. It took a north-easterly direction near Inch Keith, and came down almost into the Forth; but as he threw out the ballast, it rose higher than ever. The wind bore him over North Berwick, and from there to Leven and Largo, after which a SSW. breeze brought him to where he descended, a mile east from Ceres in Fifeshire, Where the balloon. was at its greatest altitude -three miles-the barometer stood at eighteen inches five tenths, yet Lunardi experienced no difficulty in respiration. He passed through several clouds of snow, which hid from him alike the sea and land. Some reapers in a field near Ceres, when they heard the sound of Lunardi’s trumpet, and saw his balloon, the nature of which was utterly beyond their comprehension, were . filled with dreadful alarm, believing that the end of all things was at hand; and the Rev. Mr. Arnot, the ministet of Ceres, who had been previously aware of Lunardi’s ascent, required some persuasion to convince them that what they beheld was not supernatural. A number of gentlemen who collected at Ceres, set the church bell ringing, and conveyed the bold aeronaut with all honour to the manse, where a crowd awaited him. His next ascent was from Kelso. On the 26th of September, 1794, there mustered on Heriot’s Green, to receive their colours, the Royal Regiment of Edinburgh Volunteers, under Lieutenant-Colonel Elder (the old provost) and Colonel William Maxwell, afterwards a general. The corps consisted of eight companies with thirtytwo officers, fifteen of whom had belonged to the regular army; but all ranks were clothed alike, the sergeants being indicated by their pikes and the officers by their swords. The corps numbered about 785, all told Their uniform was a blue coat, lapelled With black velvet, cut away from below the breast, With broad heavy square skirts, a row of buttons round the cuff, gold epaulettes for all ranks, white cassi. mere vest and breeches, with white cotton stockings,